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Healthy eating key to living well

A salad a day

Dining out: Food can be fast and healthy

Q & A

A closer look

Health benefits associated
with healthy eating

It lowers the risk of:




Image courtesy of
Public Health Imaging Library
Cardiovascular disease
  • High blood pressure
  • Stroke
  • Heart disease
  • High cholesterol

Type 2 diabetes

Overweight and obesity

Certain cancers

Osteoporosis

Constipation

Diverticular disease —
development of pouches in
the large intestine

Iron deficiency anemia

Macular degeneration

Source: Dietary Guidelines for Americans, 2010

Health benefits associated with healthy eating

Know your limitations

Healthy eating includes not only what you should eat, but what you should not. Learn to read food labels to keep track of limited substances.

Substance Daily limit — less than ...

Sodium

2,300 milligrams (about a teaspoon)

1,500 milligrams for those with hypertension

Cholesterol

300 milligrams

Saturated fats

7 percent of total calories ― 15 grams or 140 calories for a 2,000 calorie diet

Trans fats

1 percent of total calories ― 2 grams or 20 calories for a 2,000 calorie diet

Source: American Heart Association

The facts about fiber

How much of what?

Keep your fats straight

Know your limitations

The facts about fiber

Fiber — carbohydrates that cannot be digested — comes only from plant foods and is important for our digestive health. It prevents constipation and keeps us regular.
At least 25 grams of fiber a day are recommended. Look for products that contain five grams or more per serving.

Major Sources:
Fruits and vegetables
Whole grains
Legumes
Nuts

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A closer look

A key to good health is a well-balanced diet. The foods you eat and the amount largely depend on your age, gender, physical activity and daily required calories. Consult a physician or nutritionist to learn to eat healthy or refer to educational resources, such as www.choosemyplate.gov to help plan a program that is right for you.

  • Eat a variety of fruits and vegetables, whole
    grains and fat-free or low-fat milk products.

  • Include lean meats, such as beef sirloin, or
    choose fish, poultry and legumes as a
    substitute for fatty meat.

  • Choose foods that are low in trans and
    saturated fats, cholesterol, salt and added sugars.

  • Drink water instead of fruit drinks and regular soda.

  • Choose liquid oils for cooking instead of solid fats.

  • Watch portion sizes. Eating too much of even healthy foods can lead to weight gain.
Healthy eating key to living well


Fruits and vegetables contain health-promoting nutrients that combat cardiovascular disease —
the leading cause of death in this country.

Let’s face it.

Eating healthy has as much sex appeal as watching grass grow on an inner city playground.

None. Nada. Zippo.

But like everything else associated with life and death, it’s almost mandatory.

Take eating five servings of fruits and vegetables each day. It’s considered a benchmark of healthy eating and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) tried to spread that word years ago.

The response has been less than enthusiastic. In a 2009 report, the CDC determined that less than one-fourth of adults in this country claimed to have consumed the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables.

The numbers ranged from a low of 15 percent in Oklahoma to a high of almost 32 percent in Washington, D.C.

In Massachusetts, more than 26 percent of adults said that they had consumed the desired amount. Unfortunately, the statistics for blacks were not as good. Only 20 percent of black adults in the state said they ate five or more servings of fruits and vegetables a day.

It doesn’t have to be that way. By now, most know that healthy eating helps avoid a slew of problems prevalent among African Americans. It decreases the risk of several chronic diseases — heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, hypertension and certain cancers — as well as obesity.

It is so important that the federal government has stepped in. The U.S. Departments of Health and Human Services and Agriculture have established dietary guidelines — science-based advice to promote health and reduce major chronic diseases. The most recent guidelines, published in 2010, provide a general framework.

The new guidelines stress a balanced diet of six food groups — whole grains, fruits, vegetables, low-fat dairy products, lean meats, poultry and fish, and legumes, nuts and seeds. Although not a food group, unsaturated fats — olive oils, avocados and nuts – are also recommended.

Whole grains provide energy and fiber, and are found in cereal, whole wheat bread and brown rice. Fruits and vegetables are a good source of vitamins, minerals and fiber, while milk, meat, fish, beans and nuts are rich in proteins.

In a 2009 report, the CDC determined that less than one-fourth
of adults in this country claimed to have consumed the recommended amount of fruits and vegetables.

The guidelines also limit the consumption of sodium, added sugars and unhealthy fats — those found in fatty meats, dairy products and fried foods — that have been shown to increase the risk of heart disease.

To facilitate a healthy regimen, the federal government has provided two eating patterns that consumers may follow — ChooseMyPlate (www.choosemyplate.gov) and Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) eating plan.

Research studies have shown that the DASH plan is effective in lowering blood pressure and preventing hypertension in those without the condition.

Even the National Cancer Institute (NCI) has entered the fray. NCI, in affiliation with black churches developed the “Body and Soul” program that encourages church members to eat a healthy diet rich in fruits and vegetables.

In some situations, government officials are taking strong actions. In July 2007, New York became the first city to prohibit restaurants from using trans fats in an attempt to lower the risk of heart disease. In Massachusetts, Brookline followed suit, and in September 2008, Boston implemented the first phase of its own ban on trans fat, prohibiting its use in cooking oils in restaurants and other food service establishments. The law’s second phase, effective March 2009, bans trans fat in baked goods.

But even with governmental intervention, people are still not getting the message. One of the reasons is information overload.

Constance Brown-Riggs,
M.S. Ed., R.D., C.D.E., C.D.N. Registered Dietitian-Certified Diabetes Educator National Spokesperson for the Academy
of Nutriton and Dietetics
And confusion. Take carbohydrates, for example. Carbohydrates are essential — they make glucose, or sugar, which provides fuel for the body. Most people think of carbohydrates as breads, cereal and pasta, and they are right. But many do not realize that fruits, vegetables and milk are also carbohydrates.

People with diabetes or glucose intolerance have to be mindful of their intake of carbohydrates.

Another problem is that one dietary plan doesn’t fit all. The amount of recommended food varies by age, gender, physical activity and health status. More importantly, it varies by taste.

That’s the point that Constance Brown-Riggs tries to instill in her clients. Brown-Riggs works for the Academy of Nutriton and Dietetics, and is a registered dietician and certified diabetes counselor.

Brown-Riggs stresses practicality. “You have to reach people where they are,” she says. “You can’t suggest a diet that includes cottage cheese and cauliflower if a person doesn’t like that particular food.”

The first step, she says, is taking a personal inventory and determining individual health risks.

A person should then look at the general dietary guidelines and compare it to what he or she is doing.

“Then make a plan,” she says. “Be practical and realistic. Start from square one and take small steps.”

She cautions not to do everything at once. “It will not last,” she warned.

Brown-Riggs says she recognizes the difficulty in changing eating habits. But health professionals often add to the problem by making the mistake of not showing a person how to eat what he or she likes to eat.

And that’s a big part of the problem.

Brown-Riggs says that people can eat many of the foods they like — even soul food. “People make the mistake of categorizing food as ‘good’ or ‘bad,’ ” she says.

That misses the point.

The foods that many blacks eat are very high in nutrition — it’s how they are cooked that’s the problem.

Collard greens, for example, are an excellent source of vitamins, minerals and fiber. But when “doctored up,” they contain salt, fats and added sugars — all of which contribute to chronic health problems.

Brown-Riggs offers a solution. Seasoning with smoked turkey breast instead of ham hocks allows the flavor without the added fat.

If you cannot do without candied yams, use less sugar or a brown sugar substitute. Sweet potato casserole is even better since it requires less fat. The reason is simple. Sweet potatoes already contain naturally occurring sugars and complex carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins A and C, iron and calcium.

She recommends patience to those trying to lose weight. “Don’t get on the scale every day,” she explains. “You probably won’t notice that much of a difference … You didn’t gain the weight overnight; you won’t lose it overnight either.”

If there is a recipe you like, look at the ingredients. Pay attention to the fat content. Use 1 or 2 percent milk instead of whole milk.

Sodium is particularly harmful. It contributes to high blood pressure and can cause a buildup of fluid in those with congestive heart failure or kidney disease. Brown-Riggs recommends using a small amount in food preparation and not at the table.

She offers hope. “Taste buds change and that’s good news,” she says. “Give it a chance.”